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HY Notes: CK(Q-bank)

  1. • Familial short stature: normal birth weight and length 􀃎 age of 2-3 years growth decelerate and drops to 5th percentile 􀃎 The onset and progression of puberty normal : Bone age is typically consistent with the chronologic age.
  2. • Immunizations: Hep B vaccine- At birth, 1 month, and 6 months DTaP- At 2, 4, and 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years Td booster- 11-12 years, and then every 10 years Hib- At 2, 4, and 6 months, and 12-15 months
    IPV- At 2 and 4 months, 6-18 months, and 4-6 years
    MMR- At 12-15 months and 4-6 years
    Varicella- 12 months
    • Chemo-prophylaxis tuberculosis: The usual agent isoniazid. Indicated in the following groups:
      1. 1) tuberculin skin test has converted from negative to positive within the previous 2 years;
      2. 2) all small children (<4>
      3. 3) all HIV patients with positive PPD;
      4. 4) elderly patients with a definite conversion of PPD;
      5. 5) PPD positive persons with apical scars;
      6. 6) PPD positive persons with significant risk of recurrence due to diabetes mellitus, prolonged corticosteroid therapy, gastrectomy, end-stage renal disease, or gastric stapling.
  3. • CHARGE syndrome: colobomas, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation, genitourinary abnormalities/ cryptorchidism and ear anomalies,not genetically transmitted and is not associated with a teratogenic effect of any substance.
  4. • Amount of Factor VIII to hemophiliac A patients: weight in pounds x 20 x desired plasma level in units. (Not applicable in hemophiliac B patients because Factor IX tends to bind to the endothelium of the vessel walls.Monitor the patient for cessation of bleeding or check clotting times before assuming that a calculated dose of Factor IX had its intended effect)
  5. • Ataxia-telangiectasia: autosomal recessive disease.Ataxia,Choreoathetoid movements, slurred speech, ophthalmoplegia, and progressive mental retardation,Telangiectasias.Recurrent sinopulmonary infections. lack of IgA and IgE, cutaneous anergy and a progressive cellular immune defect. predisposition for certain cancers (leukemias, brain cancer, and gastric cancer). Most of these patients die of their neurologic deterioration by age 30.
  6. • Irreversible muscle weakness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy seen after ventilator put for respiratory distress due to pneumonia etc 􀃎hypoventilation on weaning 􀃎tracheostomy will reduce the dead space and airway resistance.
  7. • Infants usually double their birth weight by 6 months
    Infants are triple their birth weight by the age of 12 months. Infants usually quadruple their birth weight by 24 months. Infants usually double their length by 4 years.
    • Most patients with ALL are significantly granulocytopenic = like aplastic anemia associated with bone pain & fever = features like ecchymoses & infections
    • Orthostatic proteinuria:very common 􀃎protein excretion rate is higher while the child is in an upright position 􀃎obtain a "first morning" urine before the child has had much time in an upright position. DDx Minimal change ds = Edema, hypercholesterolemia & hypoproteinemia
    • Neonate with pneumonia and h/o conjunctivitis on the fourth day of life. The leukocyte count is elevated at 15,000 with 40% eosinophils = suspect Chlamydia
    • Corrossive ingestion: ingestion can cause severe esophageal necrosis of the liquefaction type. Full-thickness injury is common. In severe cases, it can cause esophageal perforation and mediastinitis. Acid ingestion causes coagulation necrosis and eschar formation. The eschar tends to protect the esophagus from full-thickness injury and corrosive perforation. Perform an esophagoscopy within 24 hours of exposure for the following patients following alkali ingestion:
    1. 1. Small children
    2. 2. Symptomatic older children and adults
    3. 3. Patients with abnormal mental status
  8. Esophagoscopy should not be performed in patients with evidence of gastrointestinal perforation, significant airway edema, or necrosis and in those who are hemodynamically unstable.
  9. • Children with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious bacterial infection and sepsis because they have impaired splenic function. Intravenous ceftriaxone is the most commonly used antibiotic in a febrile child with sickle cell disease. It is effective against both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae.
  10. • Red urine = hematuria, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, certain foods or medications (e.g., rifampin, nitrofurantoin, chloroquine, azo dyes, beets, and blackberries), and the presence of urates.
+ Strip-test for blood in a urinalysis = red blood cells, hemoglobin or myoglobin = perform microscopic analysis to DDx Raised serum creatinine phosphokinase = rhabdomyolysis = admit for aggressive IV hydration and treatment with sodium bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine to prevent precipitation of the myoglobin in the renal tubules.
• Nightmares:frightening dreams that awaken the child from REM sleep recall details of the dream.
Nightterror: Stage 3 or 4 sleep,not recalled Rx simply let it go but prevent injury
  1. • Functional abdominal pain is pain that lasts for more than 3 months and often interferes with normal activity. The pain is periumbilical and often hard to describe. The pain typically does not awaken patients from sleep or interfere with pleasant activities. The pain is real and is the result of the regulation of gastrointestinal motility in response to either psychological or physical stress.
  2. • Fragile X male = Adv Cytogenetic testing in female siblings = Heterozygous females frequently have developmental and behavioral problems such as ADHD. They may also have borderline or mild mental retardation.
  3. • Rx Acne vulgaris: retinoid (tretinoin, adapalene, and the new yeast-derived agent azaleic acid).S/E skin irritation & photosensitivity. Frequent face washing with strong soap will probably cause exacerbation of acne. Gentle face washing once or twice daily with mild soaps is recommended.
  4. • Toxicities tricyclic antidepressant ingestion: 1. A prolongation of the QRS interval is highly predictive of both cardiac and CNS toxicities
    1. 2. Right deviation of the QRS axis (greater than 120 degrees) is very predictive of cardiac toxicity from tricyclics.
  5. • Fat embolism brain = multimodal petechiae in the white matter represent the most common pathologic change. Corpus callosum and cerebral peduncles small petechiae = Diffuse axonal injury = coma a few hours to days after head trauma. Multiple cortical infarcts, usually of the hemorrhagic type = Septic embolism / white matter is spared.
  6. • Prostatic abscess:Infecting organisms include aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus.
  7. • Hyper IgM immunodeficiency = increased susceptibility to major gram-positive pathogens and opportunistic infections (such as the patient's Pneumocystis infection). The biochemical basis defect in a receptor on the T cell membrane that helps to trigger B cell switching from IgM to IgA, IgG, and IgE.
  8. • The tidal volume for a patient on respirator is generally estimated as 10 mL/kg of weight.
  9. • Screening every 5 years, a random cholesterol level should be checked = > 240 mg/dL =fasting lipid profile
  10. • Scaling skin on back and extensor surfaces of the extremities/flexor surfaces are uninvolved. Cracking of the skin is prominent on the palms and soles. + atopy = ichthyosis vulgaris, Rx minimizing bathing with use of soaps only in the intertriginous areas. Bathing limited to 10-minute periods (to hydrate the stratum corneum), followed by immediate application of an emollient such as petrolatum, can help to control the scaling. In addition, 50% propylene glycol in water under occlusion by thin plastic film or bags during the night is helpful in adults, but is not usually used in children.
  11. • Nummular dermatitis: chronic inflammation / etiology unknown. Coin-shaped/discoid itchy patches of vesicles and papules (ooze serum and crust over)numerous on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and on the buttocks. Heal and then reappear at the same sites. Microscopically, localized spongiosis (corresponding to edema) of the epidermis, which may also contain minute fluid-filled holes that correspond to the tiny
  12. vesicles seen clinically in early lesions. Treatment of these patients is problematic, and numerous regimens involving corticosteroids or antibiotics have been recommended, each of which appears to work with some but not all patients.

  13. • Euthyroid sick syndrome: seriously ill patient with low T4 /T3, but below normal, normal, or minimally elevated TSH and clinically do not have clinical hypothyroidism.DDx true hypothyroidism (significantly raised TSH).
  14. • End-stage liver disease/Cirrhosis 􀃎 renal vasoconstriction occurs worsening fatigue and confusion 􀃎 distal convoluted tubule responds by conserving sodium 􀃎 diminished urine output and low urinary sodium 􀃎 Deranged BUN/creatinine 􀃎 hepatorenal syndrome 􀃎 Rx Liver transplantation 􀃎 reverse this vasoconstriction and kidney function will return to normal.
  15. • HIV encephalitis (AIDS dementia complex): most common CNS complication in AIDS = cognitive impairment, incontinence, impairment of motor skills, and confusion = sub acute inflammatory infiltration of the brain caused by direct spread of HIV = diagnosis of exclusion = MRI studies and CSF analysis are useful in excluding other CNS diseases.
  16. • Patient with respiratory distress due to pneumonia 􀃎 oxygen saturation is 80% on room air 􀃎Hypoxia puts at significant risk for delirium, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiopulmonary arrest 􀃎 Oxygen should first be administered noninvasively 􀃎starting with a non-rebreather face mask 􀃎Failed 􀃎 go for invasive methods like endotracheal intubation.
  17. • Hospitalization in community-acquired pneumonia :Criteria for hospitalization: one of the following is needed:
    1. 1. respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min,
    2. 2. room air PaO2<>
    3. 3. O2 saturation less than 90% on room air,
    4. 4. or bilateral or multiple lobes involved
  18. • The normal value for the anion gap is 12 ± 4 mEq/L
  19. • Gaucher disease: deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (Ashkenazi Jews ) 􀃎progressive accumulation of glucocerebroside within lysosomes of histiocytes 􀃎 Gaucher cells, large histiocytes with their cytoplasm engorged with glycolipid = "crumpled tissue paper" appearance 􀃎most common adult variant (type I) =most severely affected organs are the bone marrow, liver, and spleen 􀃎 Bone marrow involvement =progressive pancytopenia and bone fractures 􀃎 Glucocerebrosidase levels in circulating leukocytes: diagnostic. In the US, the disease is Rx glucocerebrosidase named alglucerase(safe but expensive)
  20. • an erythematous, slightly raised, 2-cm patch of skin on sun-exposed area (Face mostly) 􀃎 area has a rough, very adherent, yellow-brown scale 􀃎 Actinic keratosis 􀃎Rx application of 5-fluorouracil cream twice daily x 4 one-week cycles alternated with no treatment weeks 􀃎heal without scarring.
  21. • Ventilator delivering high concentrations of oxygen 􀃎 lead to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis 􀃎Use positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) to prevent the development of oxygen toxicity 􀃎But PEEP does increase the risk of both barotrauma and hypotension by impairing right-sided heart filling.
  22. • Secondary hyperparathyroidism developed in renal failure in an attempt to correct the hypocalcaemia 􀃎 bone calcium deficits and pathologic bone lesions 􀃎Rx Calcium supplementation in Renal failure
  23. • Atypical nevus(Dysplastic):size from 5 to 12 mm 􀃎most commonly on sun-exposed skin 􀃎round in color, but some have subtly notched borders or are slightly asymmetrical 􀃎 intermediate category between obviously benign nevi and malignant melanoma 􀃎increased rate of progression to melanoma􀃎 Isolated dysplastic nevi are often excised to remove the melanoma risk􀃎cases with large numbers 􀃎 careful monitoring with serial photographs can identify any changing lesions which may be undergoing malignant transformation.
  24. • Post-MI patients: Ejection fraction near or minimally subnormal Rx Beta blockers 􀃎decreasing both oxygen demand and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia 􀃎 Improved survival But if ejection fractions less than 40% 􀃎 Rx Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  25. • Tension headache: headache often triggered or worsened by stressful situations, anxiety and fatigue Rx NSAIDs
  26. • Eosinophilic fasciitis:Orange peel skin on the anterior aspects of the extremities= scleroderma-like disorder involving the arms, legs, and sometimes face and trunk, but not usually the hands and feet 􀃎 lead to eventual restriction of arm and leg motion related to inflammation and fibrosis of fascia 􀃎Biopsy of the skin or fascia shows cellular infiltrates with histiocytes, plasma cells, lymphocytes and (in only some cases, despite the name) eosinophils 􀃎 Rx high dose prednisone followed by tapering and maintenance for 2 to 5 years on low dose prednisone.
  27. • Pulsus paradoxus: significant fall in systolic blood pressure with inspiration = severe asthmatic attack 􀃎 Look for associated accessory muscles of respiration, i.e., the internal intercostal muscles and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
  28. • Traumatic hemolytic anemias: repeatedly compressed tiny blood vessels, causing fragmentation of some red cells (triangle and helmet shapes)􀃎 e.g. forced march DDx rhabdomyolysis: high creatine kinase
  29. • Atrial fibrillation (in CHF) 􀃎causes cardiovascular embarrassment and pulmonary edema 􀃎adequate management of atrial fibrillation is rate control 􀃎 Rx Digoxin with or without a nodal agent such as a beta blocker.However,in sinus tachycardia seen with hyperthyroidism DOC is propanolol alone.
  30. • Bleeding in diverticular 􀃎 usually due to the disruption of an often single arteriole or small artery in a diverticulum 􀃎vessel can be sufficiently stretched by the diverticulum that it cannot undergo contraction.
  31. • Sheehan syndrome: panhypopituitarism due to intrapartum necrosis of the pituitary 􀃎insulin challenge 􀃎Measuring plasma levels of growth hormone and cortisol and evaluating thyroid hormones and TSH levels 􀃎Rx hydrocortisone (IV not oral like prednisolone) and thyroid hormones.
  32. • Blood supply from 1978 to 1985 was likely to be tainted with HIV positive blood 􀃎patients with a history of blood transfusions during these years even if currently asymptomatic, should be screened.
  33. • Hyperkalemia 􀃎First to give: IV calcium gluconate 􀃎 to counteract the effect of the high potassium on the heart and muscle
  34. • Hypercalcemia 􀃎 Rx IV saline and furosemide 􀃎rapid and safe way to lower serum.
  35. • hemochromatosis = total body iron load >5 g; (hemosiderosis = milder iron overload)
  36. • cirrhosis and portal hypertension 􀃎 Rx Propanolol (to reduce his portal pressure) and Frusemide to relieve ascites 􀃎 dehydration (dry mucous membranes) related to his diuretic 􀃎 BUN elevated 􀃎may exacerbate hepatic encephalopathy􀃎 but pulse does not demonstrate a reflex tachycardia because of the propranolol.
  37. • In portal hypertension strictly restrict or entirely avoid any medications with a sedative effect, e.g., benzodiazepines as they may ppt an encephalopathy.
  38. • Silent lymphocytic thyroiditis: common disorder of postpartum women,autoimmune reaction to the thyroid gland 􀃎produce transient hyperthyroidism (related to follicle destruction) followed by hypothyroidism (that may be either permanent or resolve within 1 year).
  39. • Seborrhic Keratosis: This lesion is characterized by light brown to black papules or plaques with an adherent waxy, greasy scale. The "stuck-on" appearance is very characteristic. It is most often found on the face and trunk.
  40. • The findings of a coagulopathy or of an encephalopathy confer the worst prognosis in patients with acute viral hepatitis.These findings, in fact; suggest the possibility of fulminant hepatic failure.
  41. • IgA type heavy chain diseas:centered in the Middle East ,ages of 10-30􀃎present with abdominal mass and malabsorption (behaves like an abdominal lymphoma but not mailgnant)􀃎confined to the gut and mesenteric lymph nodes 􀃎may represent an aberrant reaction to some sort of bacterial infection 􀃎 Rx corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs and broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  42. • Pemphigus vulgaris:uncommon autoimmune skin disorder characterized by blistering and erosions involving the mucous membranes and skin 􀃎 autoimmune attack is on the junctions between epithelial cells in the epidermis 􀃎 blisters occur high in 􀃎the epithelium and can rupture easily(Nikolsky's sign) 􀃎 begin in the mouth 􀃎 rapid rupture of the blisters may lead to the impression that the initial lesion is an ulcer rather than a blister 􀃎 IgG deposition on epithelial cell surfaces 􀃎life-threatening as a result of fluid/electrolyte imbalance, secondary infection, or complications of the high-dose corticosteroid therapy.
  43. • Marrow fibrosis suggests myelofibrosis. The marrow in aplastic anemia is fatty, rather than fibrotic
  44. • Excess vitamin C supplementation can lead to uricosuria and the development of calcium oxalate stones.
  45. • The perfusion territory of the anterior spinal artery includes the anterior horn cells and part of the pain and temperature pathways. Thrombosis of this artery causes flaccid paralysis, loss of bowel and bladder function and loss of pain and temperature sensation
  46. • Infectious Mononucleosis: Ampicillin therapy leads to a maculopapular rash. An antibiotic should not be given.
  47. • To rapidly assess for the possibility of antifreeze ingestion, the physician can evaluate the patient's urine under a Wood's lamp for fluorescence. Manufacturers of ethylene glycol-containing antifreezes typically add fluorescein to the mix, which will fluoresce under a Wood's lamp.
  48. • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria(Marchiafava-Micheli syndrome):genetic defect in glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol "anchor 􀃎 marked sensitivity of RBC to serum complement factor C3 􀃎 Hemolysis triggered by infection, iron use (prescribed to treat the anemia), vaccination, or menstruation 􀃎predisposed for thrombotic disease, including Budd-Chiari Syndrome 􀃎Ham test:classic but non-specific:acid incubation causes red cell lysis􀃎flow cytometric analysis using CD 55 and CD 59 (most definitive).Prognosis good only a few require allogenic bone marrow transplant.
  49. • AMI : Thrombolytic therapy is indicated in patients up to 75 years of age .Absolute contraindications include a bleeding diathesis, major surgery or trauma within 6 months, gastrointestinal bleeding, or the presence of aortic dissection or a known intracranial tumor.
  50. • Whenever you see ‘Lewy’s Body’ think of relation with Parkinson’s􀃎 dementia with visual hallucinations and extrapyramidal signs 􀃎dementia with Lewy bodies 􀃎 Like parkinsons it shows fluctuating clinical course with alternating periods of improvement and deterioration 􀃎DDx Pick dementia =Personality changes & disinhibition,affecting younger than 65 􀃎striking atrophy of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes.
  51. • Suspected lung carcinoma 􀃎hoarseness􀃎metastatic disease to the recurrent laryngeal nerve􀃎incurability by surgical means.
  52. • Charcoal is DOC within 4 hrs of toxic ingestion in any case 􀃎 also applicable to Acetominophen 􀃎Give charcoal + N-acetylcysteine within 4hrs of ingestion 􀃎If >4 hrs but <10 hrs =" N-acetylcysteine">
  53. • Tangier disease:alpha-lipoprotein deficiency 􀃎very low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)􀃎recurrent polyneuropathy, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly due to storage of cholesterol esters in
  54. reticuloendothelial cells 􀃎orange-yellow tonsillar hyperplasia (due to the cholesterol ester deposits) is a distinctive clue
  55. • HIV patient with bloody diarrhea + tensmus + urgency/fecal incontinence 􀃎 Sigmoidoscopy showing proctosigmoiditis with deep ulcers 􀃎 suspect CMV
  56. • Obese patient? in postop state 􀃎 developing respiratory distress 􀃎 think about PE
  57. • Nephritic syndrome with bland urine in drug users who "skin pop" their drugs and have recurrent infections 􀃎 Enlarged kidneys 􀃎 ?Amyloidosis DDx Heroin Nephritis=Small kidneys
  58. Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (Earlier name of Hypertrphic cardiomyopathy):frequent cause of syncope or near syncope in young patients 􀃎characteristic murmur by its increase with the Valsalva maneuver (Any maneuver that decreases left ventricular size will increase the murmur because the obstructive component increases as the left ventricular cavity shrinks 􀃎 systolic ejection murmur is diminished when the patient lies down (This increases cardiac size by increasing venous return and tends to diminish the intensity of the murmur.This increases the ventricular size and diminishes the murmur).Rx Beta-blockers, such as propanolol, help relax the left ventricular smooth muscle and reduce ventricular outflow obstruction.
  59. • Mesalamine (active ingredient 5-aminosalicylic acid) rectal suspension, suppositories, delayed release oral tablets and controlled release oral capsules 􀃎not absorbed and acts topically 􀃎 modulation of arachidonic acid metabolites, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids 􀃎well tolerated except sulfite sensitivity.
  60. • Hypertensive emergency (Raised both systolic & diastolic BP)may lead to increased Intracranial tension(Blurry vision/Papilledema) subarachnoid hemorrhage and end-organ failure (Like renal manifesting as ‘cola’ colored urine) 􀃎Rx Control BP but the blood pressure should not be lowered too far 􀃎 systolic pressure in the range of 160-170 mm Hg because some of the elevated pressure may represent a compensatory mechanism to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure in the face of increased intracranial pressure or cerebral arterial narrowing (May lead to watershed infarcts)􀃎IV nitroprusside is a good agent because it can be titrated with the blood pressure. If the pressure drops too low, the IV can be turned off.
  61. • IgG subclass deficiency: minor forms of immunodeficiency disease 􀃎deficiency may involve either or both IgG2 and IgG3 with or without IgG4 deficiency 􀃎 (IgG1 is the major form, and its deficiency leads to a deficiency of total IgG (by definition not considered a "subclass" deficiency)􀃎potentially clinically important point that patients with IgG2 deficiency may also have IgA deficiency and may develop anaphylaxis if given IgA-containing blood products.
  62. • Chronic "autoimmune" hepatitis􀃎 young age & hypergammaglobulinemia􀃎biopsy demonstrating portal inflammation with lobular damage resulting in bridging necrosis
    1. 1. Type I(classic type: most frequent):associated with antinuclear and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies
    2. 2. Type II(more common in women of Western European descent):associated with autoantibodies to circulating liver-kidney microsomes. insidious + amenorrhea.
  63. • Chronic hepatitis C 􀃎 positive enzyme immunoassay test for HCV-antibodies(this test may be falsely positive in situations with hypergammaglobulinemia like seen in chronic autoimmune hepatitis)􀃎positivity should be confirmed by a more specific RIBA.
  64. • Ganglion cyst: degenerative nontumourous/cystic swellings with gelatinous material having high hyaluronic acid content the center over dorsal aspect of the wrists, usually near or attached to tendon sheaths and joint capsules􀃎 Common sites:65%scapholunate joint,volar aspect of the radius and the flexor tendon sheath. 􀃎regress spontaneously or after needle aspiration of the contents. Recurrent ganglia or ganglia that are cosmetically unacceptable to the patient can be surgically excised, but may recur after excision.
  65. • Strenuous exercise like swimming􀃎development of headache, dizziness, One sided arm clumsiness and leg weakness + loss of pain and temperature sensation on same side face and contra lateral body areas 􀃎 No prior illness 􀃎 ? lateral medullary syndrome 􀃎investigate vertebral artery dissection.
  66. • Diagnosis of Myocardial infarction requires either characteristic ST segment elevations on the ECG OR elevations in serum markers for cardiac injury. ‘Myocardial ischemia’ may or may not always manifest as MI(􀃎Angina). Diabetics often have silent ischemia.
  67. • Propranolol is considered to be relatively contraindicated in patients with peripheral claudication & asthma.
  68. • HIV/ lymphomas/organ transplants. 􀃎Evidence of destruction of myelin at multiple sites in the CNS 􀃎PML􀃎JC virus(papovavirus)􀃎 involves Oligodendrocytes in active lesions contain characteristic intranuclear inclusions.
  69. • In constrictive pericarditis (calcification of the anterior pericardium) a pericardial knock is heard 0. 06-0. 12 seconds after the aortic valve closes. This corresponds to the sudden cessation of ventricular filling.
  70. • Hypertrophic heart disease is the best recognized cause of diastolic dysfunction
  71. • ECG 􀃎P waves preceding the QRS complex but no two P waves have the same morphology 􀃎 ‘Multifocal atrial tachycardia’􀃎Variable P wave morphology and PR and RR intervals 􀃎 associated with severe pulmonary disease􀃎control of this tachycardia comes with improved ventilation and oxygenation.
  72. • HSV is thought to cause encephalitis following transport to the brain along the trigeminal nerve.
  73. • HIV with pneumocystis showing respiratory distress oxygen saturation on room air is 71% 􀃎Rx intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and prednisone 􀃎given in any patient showing significant respiratory distress or room air oxygen saturation of less than 75 % 􀃎otherwise in HIV Steroids are only given if the question of adrenal insufficiency, a common complication of HIV, is suspected.
  74. • HIV patient with watery diarrhea 􀃎typical small bowel-type diarrhea(weakness & weight loss)􀃎most common etiology cryptosporidiosis􀃎spores can be seen on the tips of the villi on biopsy.
  75. • Hypotension always accompanied with Tachycardia but when it is associated with Bradycardia 􀃎It is vagal response 􀃎Rx Atropine.E.g: post AMI
  76. • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive motor neuron disease that affects both upper and lower motor neurons. Patients present with a gradual onset of asymmetric weakness of the distal limb. Even in advanced disease, sensory and bladder function are preserved. On exam, there is hyperactivity of muscle stretch reflexes.
  77. • If autonomic dysfunction is suspected in a diabetic patient, a useful maneuver on physical examination is to look for a decrease in heart rate in response to the Valsalva maneuver (forced expiratory effort against a closed airway).
  78. • Meniere disease = tinnitus, vertigo, and progressive hearing loss􀃎 thought to be related to a degeneration of the vestibular and cochlear hair cells􀃎Rx includes bed rest, a low-salt diet, dimenhydrinate, cyclizine or meclizine.
  79. • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the result of platelet aggregation (platelet count falls below 50,000/mm3) caused by heparin-induced antibodies􀃎lead to limb-threatening thromboses and constitutes a medical emergency (Arterial thrombosis is a manifestation of the HIT syndrome)􀃎 Rx discontinue heparin and use lepirudin.
  80. • An atypical gastric upset, heartburn, indigestion may turn out to be a myocardial ischemia ++> Look for objective signs of sympathetic activation including sweating, anxiety, tachypnea, and tachycardia or light-headedness, dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, nausea and syncope. An ECG examination is imperative in any patient presenting with this symptomatology. A normal tracing is rare with acute MI.
  81. Cerebellar bleed Cerebral bleed
abrupt onset develops slowly
lucid patient early loss of consciousness
cerebellar tonsillar herniation No herniation
should be evacuated as soon as possible before coma ensues No such need
  1. • The most common cause of chronic AF is valvular disease, followed by congestive heart failure (CHF). The most common anatomic correlate seen in patients with AF (Framingham Heart Study) is an enlarged left atrium.
  2. • Otosclerosis may progress more rapidly in pregnancy􀃎Rx hearing aids; severe cases may respond to removal of the stapes with implantation of a prosthesis
  1. • Amylodosis: echocardiogram reveals ventricular walls with a "speckled pattern􀃎 restrictive cardiomyopathy􀃎 ventricular filling is impaired and the cardiac silhouette may be mildly enlarged􀃎ECG nonspecific arrhythmias􀃎 Like all restrictive ds develops into diastolic dysfunction.
  1. • The pulmonary artery catheter/Swan-Ganz catheter allows direct, simultaneous measurement of pressures in the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and the filling pressure ("wedge" pressure) of the left atrium􀃎 elevated right-sided pressure and low wedge pressure 􀃎 Rt ventricular infarct? Causing backing up of venous blood and decreased forward flow, producing a decrease in left ventricular filling, 􀃎Rx aggressive fluid administration.
  1. • A communication between an arteriole and venule in the cecum is a description of a vascular ectasia, also known as an arteriovenous (AV) malformation. This a common cause of painless colonic bleeding in the elderly and may present with acute gastrointestinal bleeding,chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, or iron-deficiency anemia. These lesions may be difficult to demonstrate, as the bleeding may be intermittent or the colon may be so full of blood that the site of origin is obscured. Techniques used to demonstrate bleeding AV malformations include colonoscopy, intraoperative endoscopy, and visceral angiography. Treatment of these lesions is problematic because many patients will subsequently develop new or recurrent bleeding vessels.
  1. • Having difficulty holding and using a writing instrument due to hand and forearm spasms 􀃎no medications, dizziness or loss of consciousness or any history suggestive of a seizure 􀃎 focal dystonia of unknown cause.
  1. • Cardioversion􀃎Synchronized electrical cardioversion is the process by which an abnormally fast heart rate or cardiac arrhythmia is terminated by the delivery of therapeutic dose of electrical current to the heart at a specific moment in the cardiac cycle as determined by a compute0r(Pharmacologic cardioversion uses medication) 􀃎Synchronized electrical cardioversion is used to treat hemodynamically significant supraventricular (or narrow complex) tachycardias, including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It is also used in the emergent treatment of wide complex tachycardias, including ventricular tachycardia, when a pulse is present. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation are treated with unsynchronized shocks referred to as defibrillation.
So,hemodynamically unstable(loss of consciousness)vetricular tachcardia 􀃎treat with asynchronous cardioversion.
  1. • Hypertension􀃎eye tries to protect itself from the hypertension 􀃎 arteriolar constriction􀃎thickening of the arteriolar walls (producing the broad light reflex)􀃎 arterioles squeeze down too hard􀃎 superficial foci of retinal ischemia(cotton wool spots)􀃎 hemorrhage and deposits occur because of vessel damage with leakage of contents.Hypertensive retinopathy seen in chronic essential hypertension, malignant hypertension, and toxemia of pregnancy. Rx control of the hypertension. (Practically, progression can be stopped and the hemorrhages will resolve, but the vessel changes remain.)
  2. • Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy= hemorrhage and exudates in the retina + microaneurysms (visible as red dots).
  3. • Proliferative diabetic retinopathy = nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy +neovascularization with vessel growth into the vitreous.
  4. • Brain-death 􀃎no electrical activity and no clinical evidence of brain function on physical examination (no response to pain, absent cranial nerve reflexes ,pupillary response:fixed pupils, oculocephalic reflex, corneal reflexes), absent response to the caloric reflex test and no spontaneous respirations. But patient without such criteria but with no purposeful activity one week after an anoxic brain injury bodes poorly for a meaningful neurological recovery!(Not a brain death but recovery not meaningful).
  5. • Whenever you see a case with a link to water reservoir/source like cruise/hospital/air-conditioner system and patient developed mental changes + diarrhea + Pneumonia = DDx Legionnaires pneumonia Rx Erythromycin
  6. • Yersinia enterocolitica: Right lower quadrant pain mimicking appendicitis with symptoms of an acute ileitis and diarrhea (In appendicitis patient typically have difficulty moving their bowels). Acquired through the fecal-oral route and diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and the finding of the organism in stool cultures.
  7. • Campylobacter jejuni: acute onset of either watery or bloody diarrhea consistent with colitis, severe fecal urgency, nocturnal bloody diarrhea 􀃎sigmoidoscopy reveals continuous, symmetric inflammation from the anal verge to the proximal sigmoid colon 􀃎 diarrhea in all age groups/peak of incidence is in young children􀃎Fecoral spread
  8. • Intentional inhalation of volatile hydrocarbons(model glue, correction fluid, spray paint and gasoline) in a large quantity = "quick drunk": resembles alcoholic intoxication􀃎very high dose ataxia, hallucinations, and nystagmus 􀃎Encephalopathy is the major chronic morbidity (Hydrocarbons are highly lipophilic leading to CNS damage) 􀃎high level of suspicion is needed 􀃎no drug screen test that can detect inhalant hydrocarbons.
  9. • Rubella vaccine 􀃎Gap of 3 months to be pregnant(theoretical risk of exposure to the rubella virus through vaccination)􀃎But if pregnancy occurs within 3 months after vaccination􀃎not an indication or a reason to terminate the pregnancy(Simply woman should be counseled about the theoretical risk).
  10. • Neonatal especially preterm steatorrhea due to smaller bile acid pool 􀃎substitute medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in the formula for long-chain triglycerides (LCTs)􀃎MCTs do not require bile acids for absorption.
  11. • Milestones:
    1. 1. 4-years 􀃎 draw a four-sided figure (i.e., a square), count to 4, identify four colors, say a four-to five-word sentence, and draw a picture of a person with at least four parts. (Easily remembered as 4-year-olds do things in 4's.)
    2. 2. 5 yrs 􀃎Drawing a triangle,count to 10, repeat a 10-syllable sentence, and draw a picture of a person with 8-10 parts
    3. 3. 6 yrs 􀃎Building a staircase with cubes,can perform simple addition and draw a person with 12-15 parts.
    4. 4. 7- yrs 􀃎ability to repeat five digits,can repeat three digits backward, draw a diamond shape, and draw a person with 18-22 parts.
  12. • Mitral valve prolapse =An apical click followed by a late systolic murmur 􀃎Rx antibiotic before Dental procedure Mitral and tricuspid regurgitation = produce holosystolic murmurs with relatively uniform intensity. Mitral regurgitation is heard at the apex while tricuspid regurgitation is best heard along the lower left sternal border. Mitral stenosis= mid-diastolic murmur heard after an opening snap.
  13. • nasal foreign body: frequent sneezing and obstruction(Often misinterpreted as a common cold or allergy) 􀃎infection develops 􀃎resulting in a purulent and malodorous discharge􀃎unilateral involvement
  14. • A saturation of 90% corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of around 60 mm Hg =Hypoxia needs oxygen
  15. • hepatitis A diagnosis is best made by determination of IgM levels against hepatitis A virus􀃎acute infection(antibody peaks at 4-6 weeks and does not persist beyond 6 months)while IgG is produced in the primary infection, but for most viral infections, including hepatitis A, it persists for a life time.
  16. • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention lasting at least 6 months and disorder must have started before age 7.
  17. • Cardiac defects:
    1. 1. Hypoplastic Lt heart syndrome: underdevelopment of the left cardiac chambers(left atrium and ventricle often exhibit endocardial fibroelastosis), atresia or stenosis of the aortic and/or the mitral orifices, and hypoplasia of the aorta􀃎 No murmur, precordial hyperactivity(enlarged right ventricle is contracting against systemic pressure), loud second heart sound (because the pulmonary artery acts as the aorta by pumping blood to the systemic circulation through the ductus arteriosus). When the ductus closes, or when the pulmonary vasculature resistance falls, the flow to the systemic circulation will decrease, causing greatly diminished peripheral pulses. Management includes infusion of prostaglandin E1 and administration of room air while on a ventilator. Prostaglandin E1 may open the ductus arteriosus and restore systemic blood flow.
    2. 2. Total anomalous pulmonary venous returnulmonary veins forming a confluence behind the left atrium, and draining into the right atrium 􀃎Complete mixing takes place in the right atrium 􀃎 right-to-left shunt through the foramen ovale to the left side of the heart􀃎 Often, no murmur is heard 􀃎chest roentgenogram often shows a normal heart size with pulmonary edema. If there is obstruction to pulmonary venous return, as is almost always present with veins draining inferior to the diaphragm, cyanosis can be very prominent.
    3. 3. Neonate becomes cyanotic then lost consciousness following feeding or when crying vigorously 􀃎 baby picked her up and held 􀃎infant regained 􀃎 hypercyanotic spells or "Tet spells"􀃎TOF
DDx Frequent cyanosis and difficult breathing following birth but improves while crying􀃎Choanal atresia Rx intubation via oropharynx
  1. • Post infectious Bells palsy:Mostly EBV
  1. • CHF in infant: respiratory distress, tachycardia and/or hyperdynamic precordium, and cardiac enlargement evidenced by echocardiogram. DDx left-to-right shunt (ASD, VSD, PDA, atrioventricular canal, or AV fistula), left-sided obstruction leading to myocardial dysfunction (severe coarctation or AS), or intrinsic myocardial dysfunction (myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, or infarct due to anomalous coronary artery). Rx IV furosemide provide quick symptomatic relief and improve respiratory distress.
  1. • Rx streptococcal pharyngitis is oral penicillin V for 10 days. However, Benzathine penicillin G can be given as a single dose intramuscularly. It is a long-acting antibiotic and can complete the treatment:Prevention of Rheumatic heart Ds in a noncompliant patient
  1. • Patients with sickle cell disease are at risk for infection by Salmonella and other gram-negative bacteria increased risk for acute recurrent Salmonella osteomyelitis. However, even in patients with sickle cell disease, Staphylococcus aureus is still the most common pathogen for osteomyelitis.
  1. • Children <3>barking cough(sounds like a seal),runny nose but no fever or drooling + hoarse with inspiratory stridor 􀃎 Acute laryngotracheobronchitis (viral croup) DDx
    1. 1. Epiglossittis 􀃎fever, drooling, muffled voice, cyanosis, and soft stridor.
    2. 2. Laryngomalacia 􀃎persistent stridor that is first noted early in infancy
  1. • Tanner stages:
    1. 1. Stage I (0-15yrs): preadolescent breast development with no pubic hair.
    2. 2. Stage II(8-15 yrs)breast budding or thelarche + small pubic hair near the labia + growth spurt
    3. 3. Stage III :more pubic hair
    4. 4. Stage IV (10-17yrs) breast and nipple enlargement with some contour separation of the areola is noted. Hairs adult quality but not distribution.
    5. 5. Stage V (12-18 yrs) complete breast enlargement with no contour separation of the areola. Pubic hair is of adult quality and distribution.
  1. • Neonatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS): Early-onset / first week of life: involve the respiratory tract causing pneumonia .Late-onset (weeks 2 and 4): meningitis.
  1. • Long Q-T syndrome (LQTS):50% familial: syncope and sudden death from torsades de pointes (TDP).
    1. 1. Romano-Ward syndrome has autosomal-dominant transmission;
    2. 2. Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndrome has autosomal-recessive transmission.(High Mortality)
On ECG 􀃎 QT prolongation (QTc averages 0. 49 seconds).
Rx beta-blocker or implantable cardiac defibrillator in resistant cases.
  1. • Child's recurrent leg pains􀃎Bilateral(Organic pain :Unilateral) 􀃎occurring soon after going to bed􀃎relieved from rubbing his legs and knees􀃎 no limp and is able to participate in sports activities 􀃎"growing" pains but unrelated to growth(affect 3-10 years).
  2. • Metabolic alkalosis in cystic fibrosis due to excess sweating (summer)infants & dehydration􀃎 hyponatremic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis
  3. • Breast-feeding jaundice􀃎decreased intake and increased enterohepatic circulation.
  4. • Any ingested toxic substance/overdose presented within 60 mints􀃎 Gastric lavage+ Add charcoal if possible
  5. • Hypernatremic dehydration: hypotonic fluid loss (history of diarrhea or vomiting),inadequate supply of mother's milk or high concentration of sodium in mothers milk 􀃎 irritable,lethargic infant and have a high-pitched cry 􀃎Complication like intracranial hemorrhage
  6. • Intussusception usually occurs within the 6 to 12-month-old age group
  7. • Conscious Sedation􀃎 minor procedures like suturing laceration 􀃎 able to maintain airway patency, protective airway reflexes and responses to physical stimuli􀃎Use short-acting or long-acting benzodiazepine (midazolam or diazepam, respectively) by the oral or rectal route for (Intravenous midazolam or diazepam can be used for procedures that produce more intense pain or discomfort, such as repair of complex lacerations, bone marrow aspiration, and reduction of fractures)
  8. • "Do's" and "Don't's." during the seizure episode􀃎don't Put any object into the patient's mouth,do Place the patient on the side,Put a pillow or other soft object under the patient's head,Loosen tight clothing around the neck,Remove sharp objects from the surroundings.After the seizures, caretakers or parents should remain with the patient until he/she is fully alert and allow him/her to go back to the usual activities.
  9. • Child with ecchymoses􀃎Eliminate bleeding abnormalities by coagulation studies 􀃎Normal study􀃎Think about Abuse!
  10. • Triad of thrombocytopenia (hemorrhage may be the presenting complaint), eczema, and recurrent infections (often respiratory)􀃎 Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome(X-linked recessive)􀃎 defects in both T and B cell function􀃎vulnerable to pyogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and Pneumocystis carinii􀃎often died by age 15 and survivors have increased incidence of cancer (lymphoma /ALL) 􀃎Rx splenectomy, continuous antibiotic therapy, IV immunoglobulin, and bone marrow transplantation.
  11. • Severe combined immunodeficiency (Autosomal recessive) 􀃎 "bubble boy" disease because its victims are extremely vulnerable to infectious diseases􀃎adenosine deaminase deficiency (purine salvage enzyme and deficiency leading to turn off DNA synthesis)􀃎Low T/B cells counts.
  12. • X linked SCID􀃎mutations in gene encoding the common gamma chain (γc),shared by the receptors for multiple interleukins􀃎 affects development and differentiation of T and B cells􀃎All males with the defective gene will have SCID􀃎 Females are carriers.
  13. • Bruton agammaglobulinemia􀃎Cellular immunity is intact􀃎 mature B-lymphocytes do not form􀃎germinal centers are absent in lymph nodes 􀃎infections after about six months (maternal antibodies have decreased)􀃎recurrent pyogenic infections, particularly of the lungs, sinuses, and bones.
  14. • Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome􀃎Clinically same as Bruton’s but onset in late adolescence/young adulthood􀃎hypogammaglobulinemia with markedly decreased IgM􀃎failure of B-lymphocytes to differentiate into plasma cells 􀃎patients have an increased risk for B-cell lymphomas, gastric carcinoma, and skin cancer
  15. • Meconium =fetal stool(desquamated cells from the gastrointestinal tract admixed with enough bile to give the soft stool a greenish color)􀃎distressed fetus will pass meconium into the amniotic fluid and then may aspirate it􀃎In maternal preeclampsia, hypertension, or postmaturity􀃎aspirated meconium is very irritating to the lungs and causes a chemical pneumonitis􀃎Rx prompt suction of the nasopharynx and mouth
  16. • Kawasaki disease:systemic vasculitis of unknown origin􀃎mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome􀃎Clinical and echocardiographic features remain the basis for diagnosis􀃎An (unidentified) infectious origin and a T-cell immune activation 􀃎Fever, bilateral non-exudative conjunctivitis, mucous membrane changes (injected pharynx, cracked lips, or strawberry tongue), extremity changes (edema, desquamation, erythema, or rash), and cervical adenopathy 􀃎myocarditis, valvular insufficiency, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and congestive heart failure􀃎Leukocytosis and an elevated C-reactive protein are associated with the development of coronary artery aneurysms􀃎Rx aspirin ,IV immune globulin & Corticosteroids(Controversial:Reduces coronary artery aneurysm?).
  17. • The most commonly abused drug by pregnant mothers is cocaine􀃎Infants small for gestational age (SGA) and sometimes,microcephaly and neurodevelopmental abnormalities􀃎irritable and cries in high-pitch􀃎. increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome & Periventricular leukomalacia.
  18. • Interesting facts that pancreatitis may show normal amylase(Rely more on lipase)
  19. • Interesting facts that Gullain Barre synd may rarely have sensory involvement
  20. • Listeriosis acquired by mothers exposed to unpasteurized dairy products or raw vegetables exposed to cattle or sheep manure􀃎amnionitis􀃎abortion, stillbirth or neonatal sepsis􀃎brown, murky amniotic fluid 􀃎or Disseminated disease in the fetus can cause granuloma formation (with associated tissue destruction) in many tissues, including liver, adrenal glands, lymphatic tissue, lungs, and brain(granulomatosis infantiseptica)
  21. • Prenatal toxoplasmosis􀃎Rx Treatment is with combination antibiotic therapy, including pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin.
  22. Bupropion 􀃎 antidepressant with both dopaminergic and noradrenergic properties􀃎improve depression and cognitive functioning (term cognition is used in several loosely related ways to refer to a faculty for the human-like processing of information, applying knowledge and changing preferences)􀃎also used to reduce Nicotine craving/dependence 􀃎Any drug with anticholinergic properties might impair cognitive function(even SSRI)
  23. • Propranolol known to occasionally lead to depressive symptoms
  24. Loosening of associations􀃎ideas are disconnected and seem to jump from one topic to an unconnected topic. Clang associations􀃎Words that rhyme are frequently associated. Concrete thinking 􀃎poor ability to think in abstract terms despite normal intelligence. Tangential thoughts􀃎thoughts that go off on a tangent, interviewer is commonly left with the sense that a question to the patient elicited a long string of thoughts that ended up having nothing to do with the original question. Thought blocking 􀃎occurs when thoughts and speech halt, often in mid-sentence, as if forgotten. The thought may be picked up later, after a period of apparent confusion.
  25. • Cimetidine known to cause psychiatric effects like delusions and psychosis􀃎related to the effects of cimetidine on the H-2 histamine receptor in the brain.
  26. • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been safely used in pregnancy. In case of psychotic depression with increased risk for suicide, the situation requires expeditious treatment to protect the mother and fetus, and ECT is the treatment of choice.
  27. • Post-traumatic stress disorder􀃎Rx Sertaline
  28. • Maternity blues is a normal state of sadness, dysphoria, frequent tearfulness, and dependence that about 20% to 40% of women experience in the postpartum period. It is thought to be derived from rapid changes in women's hormonal levels and the stress of childbirth associated with maternity
  29. • Behavioral therapy is the most frequently used treatment in children with enuresis. Dry nights are recorded on a calendar and rewarded with a star as a gift.
  30. • Agoraphobia(fear of open spaces or of the marketplace)is a fear of panic attacks in situations from which it would be difficult to gracefully remove oneself. Behavioral therapy is used to encourage patients to modify their activities.
  31. • Generally conventional antipsychotic + prophylactic anticholinergic agent (benztropine, diphenhydramine, or trihexyphenidyl).is given together􀃎sudden ceassation of anticholinergic􀃎Ppt Extrapyramidal signs like dystonic reaction/torticollis􀃎Rx IM administration of an anticholinergic agent
  32. • Although risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic, it is like conventional antipsychotics in its ability to cause significant elevations in plasma prolactin levels
  33. Psychomotor agitation is a series of unintentional and purposeless motions that stem from mental tension of an individual. This includes pacing around a room, wringing one's hands, pulling off clothing and putting it back on and other similar actions. In more severe cases, the motions may become harmful to the individual, such as ripping, tearing or chewing at the skin around one's fingernails to the point of bleeding DDx Psychomotor agitation in major depressive disorder > bipolar depression
  34. • Catatonia include stupor, negativism(motiveless resistance to all attempts to be moved or to all instructions), rigidity, posturing, mutism, stereotypies, mannerisms, waxy flexibility, and catatonic excitement. Catatonia may be associated with schizophrenia (catatonic type), mood disorders (with catatonic features), or general medical condition or Extrapyramidal side effect of drug .
  35. • Nihilistic delusions are false feelings that the self or others do not exist or are destroyed. It is typical for depression with psychotic features. At its extreme, it is called Cotard's syndrome.
  36. • Prescribing antidepressants in bipolar depression may un-mask underlying mania 􀃎Start mood stabilizer before beginning treatment with an antidepressant
  37. • Panic disorder Rx benzodiazepine like clonazepam or use of cognitive behavior therapy, which incorporates exposing the patient to disturbing stimuli in an attempt to develop coping mechanisms in response to the stimuli.
  38. • Adjustment disorder is exemplified by a set of behavioral or emotional symptoms developing as a response to an identifiable stressor within 3 months after exposure to the stressor. The symptoms are excessive compared with what one would expect from the exposure, and they cause marked impairment in social functioning.
  39. • Any event that affects the vasculature, such as a myocardial infarction or a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), has been shown to increase the risk of major depressive disorder in the months following such an event. Post-stroke mania is a rare phenomenon usually seen in infarctions of right frontal lobe and sometimes other parts of the right hemisphere.
  40. • Pemoline is a sympathomimetic agent approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Given the rate of reported cases of hepatic failure. Dextroamphetamine is approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Its main adverse reactions involve the cardiovascular system, the CNS, the gastrointestinal system, and the endocrine system.
  41. • Prevalence of ADHD is estimated to decline by 50 % every 5 years until the mid-20's i.e. older the children get without symptoms of ADHD, the less likely they have the disorder. (Generally manifest before 6-7yrs)
  42. • Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) is a brief instrument designed to grossly assess cognitive functioning. It assesses orientation, memory, calculation, reading and writing capacity, visuospatial ability, and language. The maximum score is 30. can be re-administered periodically to follow progression of dementia.
  43. • prochlorperazine and haloperidol administration􀃎 feeling of restlessness & agitation(akathisia)􀃎Rx lorazepam given IV during administration of the neuroleptic drug.
  44. • The most serious side effect of lamotrigine(adjunct in the treatment of refractory seizures and bipolar disorder) is rash (skin changes that looked like burns.)􀃎Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  45. • Clozapine is an atypical agent more effective in resistant schizophrenia. It exerts an antagonistic effect on D1 and D4 receptors􀃎S/E agranulocytosis􀃎requires regular blood count monitoring

  46. Thyroid nodule? Benign or malignant􀃎nodule large enough to cause airway or digestive tract obstruction􀃎 emergent thyroid surgery without further evaluation.
    Step-1:TSH􀃎Decreased =hyperactive nodule=typically benignA
    Step-2:TSH􀃎Normal or elevated TSH = non-functioning or normally functioning nodule.
    Step-3:Imaging and/or a biopsy to obtain a tissue diagnosis􀃎ultrasound􀃎most useful diagnostic tool fine needle aspirate (FNA)􀃎result from an FNA
      1. 1. First, the sample can represent benign lesions= no further treatment (unless the lesion continues to grow causing obstruction to breathing or eating, or causing unacceptable cosmetic disfigurement in the neck).
      2. 2. Second, the specimen can be a follicular lesion = treated with a surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid gland to determine whether it is a benign or malignant type.
      3. 3. Third, the biopsy can show a clearly malignant lesion = treated with surgical removal of the thyroid gland.
      4. 4. Finally, the sample can be nondiagnostic = requires a repeat FNA. However, after three nondiagnostic biopsies, a surgical removal of the affected thyroid lobe is usually recommended.
  1. Approach towards Breast Lump:
    1. 1. Nipple discharge: Pathologic discharges are spontaneous, bloody or associated with a mass. These discharges are usually unilateral. The most common cause of pathologic nipple discharge is intraductal papilloma, followed by duct ectasia.10 If a palpable mass is present in association with a discharge, the likelihood of cancer is greatly increased.
    2. 2. Dominant breast massDx macrocyst (clinically evident cyst), fibroadenoma, prominent areas of fibrocystic change, fat necrosis and cancer.
(a)Solid Masses in Women Less Than 40 Years of Age
  1. 1. Physical Examination􀃎 No evidence of mass 􀃎reassured and instructed in breast self-examination.
  2. 2. Physical Examination􀃎 physical finding is uncertain 􀃎 directed ultrasound examination􀃎not demonstrate a mass􀃎Repeat physical examination􀃎?mammogram (35 to 40 years not in younger)
  3. 3. Physical Examination􀃎 dominant mass (? suspicious mass is solitary, discrete, hard and often, adherent to adjacent tissue)􀃎 mammography􀃎pathologic diagnosis.
  4. 4. Physical Examination􀃎 dominant mass (? Not a suspicious mass or clinically benign)􀃎 discus options of surgical excision or follow-up with the patient􀃎patient desires surgical excision􀃎no additional testing is done􀃎patient opts for further work-up􀃎an ultrasound examination and fine-needle aspiration are performed to confirm that the mass is benign. "Triple test" (clinical examination, ultrasonography [or mammography] and fine-needle aspiration).
  5. • The size of the lesion must be measured with a ruler at presentation and on subsequent visits to allow an accurate assessment of size over time.
  6. • patient is examined every three or four months for one year to ensure stability of the mass.
(B)Solid Masses in Women More Than 40 Years of Age.
    1. 1. Abnormalities detected on physical examination in older women should be regarded as possible cancers until they are documented to be benign.
    2. 2. mammography is a standard part of the evaluation of a solid breast mass.
    3. 3. In the presence of a dominant breast mass, a normal mammogram should never be considered proof of the absence of breast cancer.
  1. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: constellation of physical and emotional symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle􀃎symptoms must be present during most cycles in the past year and during at least two subsequent cycles􀃎at least five of the following symptoms: depressed mood, marked anxiety, affective lability, decreased interest, decreased energy, sleep disturbance, craving food, feeling overwhelmed, and difficulties concentrating􀃎interfere with social or occupational functioning and are not due to other psychiatric or medical disorders.
  2. Exposure therapy􀃎a type of behavior therapy􀃎most commonly used treatment of specific phobia􀃎 desensitizes the patient by a gradual exposure to the phobic stimulus􀃎Relaxation and breathing control are important parts of the treatment.
  3. • Alprazolam belongs to the group of short-acting benzodiazepines. Even though it has a short half-life, it can produce confusion, disinhibition, and amnestic problems like blackouts in the elderly population. The risk is increased if it is combined with CYP3A inhibitors.
  4. • In pseudodementia of depression, the patient often tends to emphasize disability related to memory loss much more than patients experiencing true dementia.
  5. • Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the management of psychotic disorders. It is said to be associated with weight gain.
  6. • HIV dementia is characterized by affective, cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms and signs. It presents as a subcortical process and is most likely to occur in patients with a CD4 count below 200/mm3. It usually has a slow onset, and, after a period of stability, there can be a precipitous decline. The diagnosis is made when other causes of delirium are excluded; the disease may present with psychosis within HIV dementia. The symptoms are controlled with low doses of neuroleptics.
  7. • Circumstantiality refers to speech that is delayed from reaching the point, characterized by overinclusion of details.DDxTangentiality : patient never gets to the desired goal from the starting point of discussion.
  8. • Patients with disorganized type schizophrenia are likely to exhibit disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect. Examples of disorganized thoughts and speech include: loosening
  9. of associations or derailment, flight of ideas, tangentiality, circumstantiality, word salad, neologisms, and clang associations.
  10. • The newer atypical antipsychotics have minimal, if any effect on plasma prolactin concentrations, except for risperidone, which is associated with elevated prolactin.
  11. • A Papanicolaou smear should ideally be a sampling of the transformation zone(adequate sample should show endocervical cells)􀃎endocervical cells not present?whether the transformation zone was fully sampled􀃎Repeat the sample if high risk individual 􀃎or after 1 yr if with no high risk and had all earlier pap normal􀃎Every woman should have yearly pap smear after first intercourse or 18yrs whatever comes earlier
  12. • Rarely struma ovarii is a cause of hyperthyroidism and patients with this manifestation may have symptoms of hyperthyroidism, as well as elevated levels of thyroid hormones and decreased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
  13. • There is no evidence that breast-feeding increases HCV transmission to the baby.
  14. • Postpartum endometritis 􀃎Cesarean section is the major risk factor􀃎Organisms ascending from the vagina and causing a polymicrobial infection of the endometrium 􀃎 fever and chills, lower abdominal pain, a foul-smelling vaginal discharge and malaise􀃎 abdominal tenderness, and uterine tenderness􀃎Rx clindamycin and gentamicin ( prophylactic antibiotics are recommended in all cases of nonscheduled cesarean delivery i.e. a cesarean delivery that is not anticipated like with membranes broke but non-progressing/Breech etc and are given before or after the umbilical cord is clamped)
  15. • Discharge criteria 􀃎patient should be alert, able to ambulate (if this was her preoperative level of function), able to tolerate adequate oral intake(Patient on IV intake should not be discharged), have stable vital signs, and have satisfactory bowel and urinary tract function.
  16. • Chorioamnionitis (can develop at any time before and during delivery)􀃎fever and uterine tenderness􀃎Rx ampicillin or penicillin with gentamicin.
  17. • Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women􀃎association with preterm delivery/low birth weight 􀃎Rx trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, and cephalexin􀃎follow-up urine culture after 10 days of completing the medication􀃎test-of-cure.
  18. • Gestational diabetes􀃎usually diagnosed by means of oral glucose tolerance testing􀃎Patients with gestational diabetes and normal fasting glucose􀃎two major risks􀃎fetal macrosomia & eventual development of overt diabetes(within the next 20 years)􀃎with gestational diabetes and abnormal fasting glucose 􀃎increased risk of stillbirth.
  19. • Significant mitral stenosis during pregnancy should be monitored invasively using a Swan-Ganz catheter􀃎 second stage of labor be shortened using forceps or vacuum to prevent excess maternal Valsalva efforts and maternal tachycardia.
  20. • HIV Positive mother 􀃎combination of ZDV therapy + cesarean delivery decreases the risk of transmission to approximately 2% 􀃎Amniocentesis should be avoided, if possible, in the HIV-positive woman.
      1. 1. 2% vertical transmission with ZDV + Scheduled CS prior to the onset of labor or rupture of membranes
      2. 2. 8% antiretroviral therapy in mother + Infant
      3. 3. 25% when none used
  21. • Constitutional delay is normal pubertal progression at a delayed rate or onset. The average age at menarche is 12 1/2 years, but it may be delayed until 16 or may begin as early as age 10.
  22. • Current recommendations are that pregnant women who will be in the second or third trimester during the flu epidemic season should be given the influenza vaccination.
  23. • "once a cesarean, always a cesarean." This is no longer the case. Some women are allowed to 􀃎 approximately 70% of all women attempt vaginal birth after a prior cesarean delivery will be successful.
  24. • Face presentation􀃎Causes: anencephalic fetus, pelvic contraction, and high parity􀃎vaginal delivery is possible when the fetus is in a mentum anterior position (i.e., the fetal chin is oriented toward the maternal pubic symphysis.)􀃎Fetus can flex its head, thereby allowing delivery􀃎 Vacuum delivery /Forceps delivery with a non-vertex presentation would be contraindicated.
  25. • The presence of a classic uterine scar (vertical incision into the uterus that extends from the lower uterine segment up into the active myometrial portion toward the fundus of the uterus) mandates elective repeat cesarean delivery when the fetus is mature as patients with a previous classic cesarean delivery have roughly a 10% risk of uterine rupture.
  26. • Oxytocin or Prostaglandin (PGE2) gel is an effective agent to use for labor induction􀃎shown to improve the Bishop's score, to shorten the length of labor and delivery, to decrease the amount of oxytocin needed, and to decrease the cesarean delivery rate􀃎main complication from its use is uterine hyperstimulation􀃎increased frequency of contractions (greater than 5 every 10 minutes) or an increased length of each contraction (greater than 2 minutes) or contractions of normal duration occurring within 1 minute of each other and a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing 􀃎Rx IV or subcutaneous terbutaline or IV magnesium sulfate(MgSo4 also most effective medication for seizure prophylaxis in women with preeclampsia) in case of PGE2 or discontinuing the oxytocin (bradycardia to the 80s) or reducing its dosage (where the fetal heart rate tracing is not as non-reassuring)
  27. • Home uterine activity monitoring (HUAM) 􀃎 women are monitored at home with a tocodynamometer (a way to measure uterine contractions)􀃎will allow for preterm labor to be recognized and treated in its earliest stages􀃎to prevent preterm births􀃎In practice not been proven to prevent preterm birth􀃎possible benefit early recognition of preterm labor􀃎would allow for the administration of corticosteroids to bring about fetal pulmonary maturity (Steroid administration in a Diabetic mother may lead to increased dosage of Insulin).
  28. • Fetal scalp sampling (FSS):method of fetal assessment with fetal blood pH 􀃎When the fetal heart rate tracing is not reassuring, FSS can be used to determine the acid-base status of the fetus, which will help with management of the labor􀃎pH is > 7.25 then the patient may be managed expectantly 􀃎pH is between 7.20 and 7.25:repeat in 15 to 30 minutes􀃎pH is <>
  29. • Forceps and the vacuum extractor􀃎To expedite the delivery􀃎indications:
      1. 1. non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing,
      2. 2. maternal exhaustion
      3. 3. maternal contraindications to pushing (such as maternal cardiac disease.
  30. Choice of forceps or vacuum ? 􀃎Forceps may be used in face presentation with a mentum anterior presentation(vacuum is contraindicated)􀃎 Vaccum extractor does not occupy space next to the fetal head; this should lead to less trauma to maternal tissues􀃎Both the vacuum and forceps should preferably be used only in low- or outlet- situations (i.e., with the fetal vertex at +2 station or lower.)
  31. • A major advantage of chorionic villus sampling is that it can be performed at 10-12 weeks, as opposed to amniocentesis, which is performed in the second trimester. CVS thus allows a woman to undergo an earlier termination than amniocentesis allows for. However, there is some evidence that one subtype of limb defect, called transverse digital deficiency, is more common with CVS.
  32. • The Bartholin's glands are bilateral structures that are present near the posterior fourchette of the vagina at the 5 and 7 o'clock positions. They secrete mucus, particularly during sexual stimulation, which drains into the posterior vagina.They undergo rapid growth during the process of puberty and they shrink after the menopause. When the duct of the Bartholin's gland becomes obstructed, a Bartholin's cyst results􀃎cyst becomes infected􀃎Bartholin's abscess􀃎polymicrobial /gonococcus implicated in 25% 􀃎Rx placement of a Word catheter.( This is a small balloon-tipped catheter)allows drainage of the cyst and the formation of an epithelialized tract that will allow continued drainage once the catheter is removed􀃎tract should prevent the cyst from reforming􀃎If Bartholin's cysts continue to form in spite of the use of the Word catheter, a marsupialization procedure may be tried. In this procedure, the cyst walls are sutured open to the surrounding skin to prevent re-closure and re-formation of the cyst􀃎interestingly; one cannot make this assumption in a postmenopausal patient􀃎cystic mass on the vulva in a postmenopausal woman must be biopsied(as there is a higher likelihood that this lesion represents a Bartholin's gland carcinoma)
  33. • High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) will progress to invasive cervical cancer􀃎colposcopically directed biopsy􀃎diagnosis of HGSIL is confirmed􀃎the distribution of the lesion
  34. is known, removal or destruction of the entire transformation zone should be performed􀃎done with a loop electrode excision procedure (LEEP􀃎a thin-wire loop electrode is used to excise the entire transformation zone􀃎LEEP can thus be used as both a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure􀃎 immediate risks of LEEP are bleeding and infection. The possible long-term risks include cervical incompetence and cervical stenosis.
  35. • The American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis􀃎antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary for cesarean delivery or normal vaginal delivery 􀃎Except patient with "high risk" cardiac conditions, which include women with a history of endocarditis, or who have prosthetic heart valves, complex cyanotic congenital heart disease, or surgically corrected systemic pulmonary shunts􀃎 Mitral valve prolapse if associated with mitral regurgitation (demonstrated by Doppler or a murmur) is considered a moderate risk condition and therefore antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary.
  36. • Physiologic leukorrhea can be seen during 2 different periods of childhood. Some female neonates develop a physiologic leukorrhea shortly after birth as maternal circulating estrogens stimulate the newborn's endocervical glands and vaginal epithelium. Physiologic leukorrhea can also be seen during the months preceding menarche. During this time, rising estrogen levels lead to a whitish discharge not associated with any symptoms of irritation or infection.
  37. • With each uterine contraction, blood flow to the placenta decreases, and the fetus is exposed to transient hypoxia. As the labor progresses and more and more contractions occur, this hypoxia can eventually lead to a change from aerobic to anaerobic metabolis􀃎fetal academia􀃎most fetuses tolerate the stress􀃎protective mechanisms􀃎including a blood buffering system and the diving reflex (a lowering of the heart rate in times of hypoxic stress)􀃎Electronic fetal monitoring is used to determine whether the fetus is becoming dangerously acidemic or "stressed"? 􀃎 But many fetuses with a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing do not have academia􀃎Thus, the delivery of many fetuses is expedited because of the concern for fetal acidemia when, in fact, the fetus is not acidemic at all!
  38. • Group B Streptococcus part of the normal bacterial colonization of many women􀃎 which women will receive antibiotics during labor? 􀃎 likelihood of infection is increased if following risk factors are present:
    1. 1. The five risk factors are: 1. History of a GBS-affected neonate. 2. Urine culture with GBS (GBS bacteriuria) 3. Preterm labor (<37>
    2. 2. also provide antibiotic if pregnant women being screened for GBS and found positive at 35 to 37 weeks with a culture of the vagina, perineum, and anus.
  39. Rx penicillin.
  40. • Needle prick injury may transmit HBV>HIV during operative procedures etc
  41. • BRCA1 is associated with high risk for breast and ovarian cancer.
BRCA2 is associated with a high risk of female and male breast cancer.
But total number of breast cancer cases associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is a small percentage of the total number 􀃎Therefore, screening of the general population is not recommended.
  1. • RhoGAM (anti-D immune globulin) is given at 28 weeks' gestation, within 72 hours after the birth of an Rh-positive infant, after a spontaneous abortion, or after invasive procedures such as amniocentesis, threatened abortion, antenatal bleeding, external cephalic version, or abdominal trauma􀃎The amount is 300 μg (covers a fetal to maternal hemorrhage of 30 mL or 15 mL of fetal cells)􀃎when fetal to maternal hemorrhage in excess of this 30 mL like with manual removal of the placenta (like this patient had) or placental abruption. 􀃎To determine the amount of fetal to maternal hemorrhage that occurred, it is necessary to perform a Kleihauer-Betke test􀃎 This acid-dilution procedure allows fetal red blood cells to be identified and counted.
  2. • Aspiration pneumonitis is a major cause of anesthesia-related death in obstetrics 􀃎Rx treatment positive-pressure ventilation with 100% oxygen administered through an endotracheal tube􀃎 when an epidural is going to be placed, the patient should be given an antacid
  3. • Two of the major risk factors for uncomplicated UTI are sexual intercourse and hypoestrogenism. Hypoestrogenism is believed to be a risk factor for UTI because it is known that postmenopausal women not receiving estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) are at greater risk for developing a UTI compared with those women who do use ERT.
  4. • There is no effective screening test for endometrial cancer .It is not cost-effective to screen asymptomatic women for endometrial cancer.
  5. • Cancer screening should be an essential part of an annual examination. Colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 with no significant family history. Screening consists of a digital rectal examination with fecal occult blood testing. This can be performed at the same time that pelvic examination is performed. Sigmoidoscopy should be performed every 3-5 years.
  6. • Various studies have also shown that rates of preeclampsia, placental abruption, and heart failure may be increased in pregnant patients with hypothyroidism. Pregnancy often leads to an increased requirement for thyroid hormone replacement (thyroxine) as the pregnancy progresses.
  7. • Coumadin is contraindicated during the first trimester because of the risk of birth defects. Coumadin embryopathy is a syndrome consisting of nasal hypoplasia and stippled vertebral and femoral epiphyses. Second- and third-trimester exposure to Coumadin can lead to hydrocephaly, microcephaly, ophthalmologic abnormalities, fetal growth retardation, and developmental delay. Low-molecular-weight heparin has been shown to be an excellent anticoagulant because it has a longer half-life and a more predictable dose-response relationship,also less likely to cause thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic complications than unfractionated heparin.
  8. • Tubal ligation failure may result from many factors including recannalization of the tube and poor surgical technique. The most commonly quoted failure rate is about 1 in 100, although a more accurate figure may be closer to 1 in 300.
  9. • Raloxifene is selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)􀃎 have pro-estrogenic effects in some tissues and anti-estrogenic effects in other tissues􀃎approved for prevention of osteoporosis􀃎no effect on hot flashes.
  10. • Patient post-hysterectomy for Endometrial CA asking for HRT? 􀃎if any neoplasm is remaining in body it will grow and recur earlier! +Standard risk of venous thrombosis
  11. • Hot flashes can respond to estrogen or progestin both􀃎When both are contraindicated(like H/o pulmonary embolus for estrogen or depression for progestin) 􀃎 Rx alternative treatment Clonidine in low doses.
  12. • Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy is not needed or recommended for most women. In fact, vitamin A supplementation has been associated with birth defects, including cranial neural crest malformations. Most commonly used prenatal vitamins contain 5000 IU or less, and this is considered acceptable.
  13. • Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)􀃎in patients undergoing ovulation induction 􀃎mild OHSS (ovaries <5>10 cm) with ascites, hydrothorax, hemoconcentration, and oliguria􀃎 Rx mild cases: conservatively, more severe cases: paracentesis, thoracentesis, or surgery. 􀃎Pelvic or abdominal examinations can lead to rupture of the ovarian capsule hence ultrasound examination is preferred.
  14. • During pregnancy: gastric acid secretion & motility is reduced and mucus secretion increased􀃎 Reduced peptic ulcer disease 􀃎Similarly 70% of women with migraines will have improvement(Rx acetaminophen and antiemetics or Codeine or meperidine may be given for severe headaches􀃎Ergotamine preparations should be avoided in pregnancy)􀃎 safety of sumatriptan during pregnancy has not been established?
  15. • Mode of delivery with twin gestations:
    1. 1. Vertex-vertex twins are generally allowed to have a vaginal delivery.
    2. 2. presenting twin that is non-vertex are generally advised to have a cesarean delivery
    3. 3. Presenting twin vertex and the non-presenting twin non-vertex may decide which mode of delivery they would prefer􀃎Once the presenting (vertex) twin has delivered􀃎first option is an external cephalic version, in which the head of the second twin is guided into the pelvis so that it becomes a vertex presentation􀃎second option is a breech extraction of the second twin(Breech extraction may be performed so long as there is an adequate pelvis, a fetal weight greater than 2,000g, an experienced physician, a flexed fetal head, and available general anesthesia) • DNA-based molecular analysis can be used to diagnose fragile X syndrome. This can be performed on cultured amniocytes obtained at amniocentesis. Chorionic villus sampling is not considered to be reliable for the diagnosis of fragile X syndrome because of different methylation patterns in the trophoblast compared with the fetus.
  16. • Kallmann syndrome (i.e., isolated gonadotropin deficiency or familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) can present with primary amenorrhea ,anosmia or hyposmia, color blindness, and cleft lip or cleft palate(during embryogenesis the GnRH neurons originally develop in the epithelium of the olfactory placode and normally migrate into the hypothalamus􀃎Thus exists the link between the midline defects and the amenorrhea)􀃎Rx exogenous estrogen and progestin replacement therapy􀃎If pregnancy is desired, ovulation induction can be brought about with the pulsatile administration of exogenous GnRH.
  17. • In case of PID: The partner of the patient must be treated as well as the patient herself in order to prevent reinfection. A test of cure (TOC) should be performed 4 to 6 weeks after treatment is given to ensure that the organism has been completely eradicated from the patient and her partner or partners.
  18. • PID in preganacy􀃎Rx Clindamycin + gentamycin
  19. • Meperidine can be used as a systemic analgesic during labor. It is an opioid and readily crosses the placenta; therefore, the fetus is exposed to the medication. As an opioid, it causes respiratory depression. Neonates are at greatest risk for respiratory depression when delivery occurs approximately 2 to 3 hours after meperidine is administered to the mother.Rx nalaxone
  20. • Compound presentation:when an extremity prolapses alongside the fetal presenting part􀃎brought about when the pelvic inlet is not completely occluded by the fetal head(Most often with premature fetuses)􀃎 compound presentation can be allowed to undergo a normal labor and delivery.
  21. • Women of child-bearing age should consume 0.4 mg/day of folic acid starting preconceptionally and continuing for the first 3 months of pregnancy.
  22. • Molar preganancy: Once there is pathologic confirmation of the diagnosis, it is essential that the patient continued to be followed weekly until the beta-hCG value returns to 0. The patient should then be followed monthly for an additional year to ensure that the values stay at 0 and that there is no evidence of persistent or metastatic disease.
  23. • Syphillis in preganancy :Only Rx is penicillin as no other drug permits safe and effective treatment of the fetus as well as the mother􀃎In a patient who is allergic to penicillin, oral desensitization must be performed first in a hospital setting with appropriate facilities.
  24. • Genital herpes: no "cure" for herpes genitalis. Acyclovir can be used to shorten the duration of symptoms. In patients who have more than 6 outbreaks per year, daily oral acyclovir is recommended to prevent these frequent outbreaks.
  25. • In all other solid organ transplants, deterioration of function 10 days out would suggest an acute rejection episode, and appropriate biopsies would be done to confirm the diagnosis. In the case of the liver, however, antigenic reactions are less common, whereas technical problems with the biliary and vascular anastomosis are the most common cause of early functional deterioration. They are, therefore, the first anomalies to be sought.
  26. • Fluid replacement in a case of burns the Parkland calculations made by standard formulas are only an educated guess. Once fluid administration begins, we judge its adequacy by the information provided by urinary output and central venous pressure, aiming for an output of 1-2 mL/kg/hr, while not exceeding a venous pressure of 10 or 15.
  27. • Parkland formula: 4 mL of Ringer's lactate x body weight in Kg x percentage of the body surface burned + 2000 mL of dextrose 5% in water
  28. • The treatment of breast cancer in a pregnant woman should be the same as that in a nonpregnant woman, except for two restrictions: no chemotherapy during the first trimester, and no radiation therapy during the pregnancy. It is not necessary to terminate the pregnancy. The surgical option could be mastectomy or lumpectomyas per the size.Should axillary nodes be positive, systemic therapy should be done later.
  29. • 2nd postoperative day after an operative procedure􀃎urinary output in the past 2 hours has been zero (ARF ruled out as some urine is still produced in ARF, although it is a small volume)􀃎Rule out catheter block?
  30. • Lumpectomy alone has an unacceptably high incidence of local recurrence􀃎Always add local radiation therapy􀃎If metastatic disease found in axillary nodes􀃎Add systemic therapy. As a rule, chemotherapy is preferred for premenopausal women & receptor positive.
  31. • Never operate a patient under GA if liver function marginal 􀃎would be tipped into overt liver failure by an anesthetic and an operation
  32. • Any gunshot wound below the nipples involves the abdomen, and the management of all gunshot wounds of the abdomen requires exploratory laparotomy.
  33. • Compartment syndrome􀃎triggered by prolonged ischemia followed by reperfusion (the arm pressed against the park bench until he woke up and changed position), and located in one of the two most common sites (forearm and lower leg)􀃎reliable physical finding pain on passive extension and the diagnosis is not ruled out by normal pulses. Only a fasciotomy will solve his problem.
  34. • Amputed finger under transport􀃎must be kept from drying out􀃎must not be injured with any direct chemical agents􀃎must not be placed in direct contact with ice or allowed to freeze.
  35. • There is some evidence that high-dose corticosteroids administered as soon as possible after the injury will result in a better ultimate outcome
  36. • A rough guideline to quantify water loss 􀃎every 3 mEq/L that the serum sodium concentration is above normal, represents about 1 L of water deficit 􀃎 E.g Na+ 155 = excess of 15 = water deficit of about 5 L. While correcting hypernatremia the tonicity correction should not happen with the same speed with which the volume is going to be corrected (Brain should adapt with osmolality changes)􀃎 That delay is achieved by choosing a fluid that is not pure water, but one that has some sodium in it to dampen the effect on tonicity􀃎E.g Dextrose with half NS
  37. • Severe head trauma sufficient to produce coma + facial injuries􀃎always evaluate with CT to R/o bleed and include Neck also
  38. • All failed regimen in anal fissure􀃎 Opt for Forceful dilatation under anesthesia, lateral sphincterotomy, or botulinum toxin injections
  39. • Abdominal compartment syndrome􀃎the life-saving massive fluid infusions produce severe edema in the surgical field􀃎Forced closure would compromise ventilation and venous return􀃎A temporary plastic coverage, or a mesh, allows the bowel to be protected without undue pressure.
  40. • Pelvic bone fracture 􀃎Falling BP but no free fluid within abdomen 􀃎Pelvic fractures can bleed massively, and often the source is torn veins that are not easily controlled􀃎Minimizing the motion of the bone fragments by external fixation can be helpful􀃎 Comminuted fractures of the femurs are also known to be one of the few places in the body where enough occult blood loss may occur to lead to hypovolemic shock.
  41. • Hyperthyroid state 􀃎 But the thyroid gland normal􀃎Radioactive iodine uptake should be high if her gland is indeed hyperfunctioning but it will be near zero if it is suppressed by the exogenous hormone.
  42. • Breast mass found after trauma not regressing after week might not be a hematoma or fat necrosis􀃎trivial trauma sometimes brings to the attention of the patient an area of the body that had not been examined before􀃎A breast mass in a >40-year-old woman requires a mammogram and biopsy.
  43. • Gunshot wounds to the base of the neck may injure major vessels, the tracheobronchial tree, and the esophagus 􀃎diagnostic studies should precede surgical intervention if time allows
  44. • Several months after sustaining a crushing injury to arm􀃎constant, burning, agonizing pain in that arm􀃎Not responding to usual analgesic medications􀃎 aggravated by the slightest stimulation of the area, such as rubbing from the shirt sleeves􀃎arm not swollen and pulses normal􀃎neurologic function of major
  45. nerves intact􀃎causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy)􀃎If sympathetic block relieves the symptoms, permanent cure will be obtained with surgical sympathectomy.
  46. • Small umbilical hernias can close spontaneously up to the age of 2 years.
  47. • Enucleation of Eye􀃎Often done for two malignant tumors􀃎retinoblastoma and melanoma􀃎melanoma may present as metastatic tumour after even 20-some years􀃎A patient with a glass eye or missing toe and a liver full of tumor is classic examples to illustrate the unpredictable behavior of melanoma.
  48. • Suspected Skin CA 􀃎 Always perform biopsy 􀃎edge of the lesion offers the best information for the pathologist􀃎An excision before pathologic diagnosis risks doing too much (a basal cell cancer needs only 1 or 2 mm of margins) or too little (a melanoma should have at least 2 cm).
  49. • most important thing that can be done for caustic chemical burns is to wash away the caustic agent as soon as possible
  50. • When coagulopathy develops during operative procedure􀃎 provide fresh frozen plasma and platelet packs. 􀃎when hypothermia complicates the picture􀃎Close the abdomen immediately 􀃎 bleeding surfaces have to be packed, waiting for a more propitious time in which to attempt hemostasis, once coagulation function and body temperature have improved
  51. • Diffuse esophageal spasm v/s Nutcracker esophagus􀃎 on manometry there is a mean distal esophageal peristaltic amplitude of more than 180 mm Hg, including an elevated baseline pressure in the lower sphincter in Nutcracker (Normal pressure and relaxation in diffuse esophageal spasm).
  52. • De Quervain's tenosynovitis: Tenosynovitis of the abductor or extensor tendons of the thumb 􀃎positive Finkelstein sign (the pain produced by ulnar deviation to stretch the affected tendons).
  53. • Advanced breast CA􀃎Rad/chemo to make it operable
  54. • A high spinal anesthetic can produce vasomotor shock by inducing widespread vasodilation. Vasoconstrictors are the appropriate therapy, but since the capacity of the vascular tree is also increased under these circumstances, filling it up with additional volume is also helpful.
  55. • Follicular thyroid cancers can metastasize by way of the blood stream to the liver, lung, brain, or bones. Because the tumor has rudimentary functional capability, it can be traced with and ablated by radioactive iodine; however, the tumor cannot compete successfully with normal thyroid tissue for the capture of iodine. After removal of the entire gland, the tumor becomes the most effective iodine trapper in the body.
  56. • Very tender spot in the third interspace foot(between the third and fourth toes)􀃎no redness, limitation of motion, or signs of inflammation􀃎classic for Morton's neuroma, a benign neuroma of the third plantar interdigital nerve.
  57. • A fracture from such trivial strain signifies a very weakened bone. In this age and gender, the most likely cause would be a lytic lesion from metastatic breast cancer.
  58. • Post-traumatic hemothorax􀃎criteria to perform thoracotomy 􀃎if the initial blood recovery exceeds 1000 mL, or if subsequent drainage adds up to 600 mL or more, over the ensuing 6 hours.
  59. • wound dehiscence after abdominal surgery􀃎draining copious amounts of clear pink fluid from his midline laparotomy wound􀃎could have been handled by taping the wound securely􀃎 Immediate surgical repair is mandatory􀃎Not allowed to strain abdomen or move around􀃎Once the bowel came out, the problem became an evisceration
  60. • Acute ‘Senility’ within short periods of weeks 􀃎Suspect chronic SDH.
  61. • In case of Pheochromocytoma 􀃎 presence of catabolites from epinephrine indicates that the tumor is in the adrenal glands, and not at an extra-adrenal site.
  62. • When hitting the knees against the dashboard, the femurs can be driven backward and out of the acetabulum, resulting in posterior dislocation of the hips. Because of the tenuous blood supply of the femoral heads, such injury must be promptly recognized and treated.
  63. • Postoperative complications:
    1. 1. Atelectasis : seen on day 1
    2. 2. Fever day 3 is usually from the urinary tract infection.
    3. 3. Deep thrombophlebitis 5-7 days after surgery
    4. 4. Intra-abdominal abscess 7-10 days
  64. • Intraoperative myocardial infarction is mostly seen in elderly men, and the most common triggering event is prolonged hypotension. Furthermore, the mortality greatly surpasses that of a myocardial infarction de novo (ie, unrelated to surgery), reaching upto 50-90%
  65. • heel pain every time foot strikes the ground􀃎worse in the mornings, preventing him from putting any weight on the heel􀃎when the ankle is dorsiflexed, the entire inner border of the fascia is tender to palpation􀃎 plantar fasciitis.
  66. • central cord syndrome:mechanism of injury (hyperextension)􀃎relative sparing of the lower extremities in the presence of upper extremity deficits are classic
  67. • Anterior cord syndrome all functions are lost, except for positional and vibratory sense. Those injuries occur with blowout of the vertebral bodies.
  68. • Posterior cord syndrome is quite rare, and it would show loss of positional and vibratory sense.
  69. • Anorectal signs and mass with Inguinal nodes 􀃎has to be anal SCC􀃎AdenoCa of rectum will never metastasize to inguinal nodes.
  70. Ogilvie syndrome is the acute pseudoobstruction and dilation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction in severely ill patients
  71. • Brain tumor with increased intracranial pressure􀃎development of hypertension and bradycardia (Cushing's reflex) signifies that the brain has run out of compensatory mechanisms to minimize the intracranial pressure elevation generated by increased intracranial volume. When that point is reached, brain perfusion suffers and death is imminent.
  72. • Posterior dislocation of the shoulder: Can be missed in AP view 􀃎mechanism of injury (massive contraction of all muscles in the area)􀃎Axillary view x-ray films are needed to make the diagnosis.

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